What Can You Manage
Lesson 3.2 Discussion Forum
January 12, 2018 at 3:58 pm #9404Ashley LyonsKeymaster
Directions: STEP 1- For each of the dimensions of behavior described in Lessons 3.1 and 3.2 (frequency, accuracy, latency, duration, endurance, intensity, and independence), provide one example of a behavior/skill that would be best measured using that technique. Provide a rationale for why you feel this is a sufficient example and why the other techniques would not be as useful for that behavior/skill. STEP 2– Respond to at least one colleague’s posting.
June 3, 2018 at 6:28 pm #9768Dawn FagenstromParticipant
Frequency- Sam will greet a peer once a morning when arriving to school when class is prompted to greet their neighbor as observed by staff.
The goal is to increase the number of times Sam greets a person, therefore we are going to record the frequency of the event. The idea is to increase in activity not the accuracy of the targeted audience. This goal does not need to be timed or endured so latency and duration are not criteria that I am considering. We are not concerned with his physical ability to engage in the goal therefore endurance is not a concern. This goal does not need force or effort to complete so intensity is not being measured. Independence could be record after we have taught the skill and he is completing the goal more regularly.
Accuracy- Sue will correctly match a group of objects 1-10 to the corresponding printed number 1-10 with 90% accuracy.
This math goal depends on the student being accurate. We could measure how often the student is accurate. At this time I am not concerned that that goal is completed within a certain time period. This goal does not require prolonged endurance or duration. This goal does not measure intensity of the task and this goal does not need to be done independently at this time.
Latency- Dan will don his winter gear within five minutes to prepare to go to recess 4/5 days a week.
This goal is measured with latency as it needs to be completed within a reasonable time. This goal is not dependent on how many times in a set period that he is able to complete the task the goal is to complete the task in a prescribed time limit. This goal is not dependent upon being accurate. Dan is not resistant to the task, he is not focused on the task itself. Therefore duration isn’t an issue. He has the physical endurance to complete the task therefor endurance is not an issue. This goal does not involve intensity. The concern is for Dan to complete the task within a time limit, which will lead to him being independent of the monitoring of the task.
Duration- Jim will remain in assigned center play for 3 minutes before moving out of center.
Jim does not enjoy being in centers and therefore we need to build the amount of time spent in the area. Frequency is not measured at this time as we are building his ability to remain in the area. This is not a goal where accuracy is measured. Jim does not engage in the task therefore latency is not measureable at this time. We could measure his endurance to the task, however I felt that I needed to build his ability to engage in the goal before I can measure his repeated behavior in the goal.
Endurance- Brooke will catch a tennis-sized ball with two hand 4/5 times as observed in sets of three.
Brooke needs to build her ability to complete the task over multiple sets. Therefore we need to build her endurance. Brooke does not resist participating in the activity therefore we are not measuring frequency. We could measure her accuracy after she has build the physical endurance for the task. This is not a timed task therefore we are not measuring latency or duration. I am not concerned with the force that she catches the ball and therefore the intensity of the task is not in question. Brooke does not need prompting to complete the task she is looking to build her ability through endurance to do so.
Intensity- Maria will respond to a question in a voice loud enough to be heard across a three foot table in 4 opportunities 5 days a week.
This goal is best measured with intensity as it revolves around the effort and force Maria is putting behind her voice. It could be a measured with how frequently she speaks with intensity, but my first concern is getting her loud enough to hear her. This isn’t a time goal and therefore latency and duration are not criteria for the goal. This goal is not measuring her physical endurance to speak loudly because she is able to speak loudly outside of school. This goal isn’t dependent on the accuracy of her voice, but rather the intensity of it. Maria is independent with her speech, she simply isn’t loud enough to be heard.
Independence- Bob will indicate that he needs to use the bathroom, without prompting, at least one time a day.
This goal is best measured by independence as it is a goal that most should be completing without reminding or prompting. I don’t feel that how frequently this child needs to use the bathroom is as critical as him being able to indicate that he needs to. The accuracy of the goal is managed within the goal itself. This isn’t a time goal and therefore latency and duration are not criteria for the goal. We are not measuring the physical endurance of the task. This goal does not involve intensity.
July 5, 2018 at 9:18 pm #9818Daniel KaasaParticipant
Module 3.2 Response to Colleague:
Dawn, I’m impressed with your assignment. The goal statement for each dimension was directly correlated to that technique. You were very accurate and concise with your rationales on why other dimensions would not be as useful. I found that hard to do because I tend to write goals that contain more than one dimension to meet the expectations of the IEP Team and to make the goal precisely measurable. When examined with the intensity that this assignment requires, I think we could look at everyone’s goal and often find at least one other dimension (e.g. “sneaking in” Accuracy when reviewing an Independence goal). This was an assignment that required a lot of thought, and its obvious you did your dimensions thoroughly.
June 4, 2018 at 4:45 pm #9771OLENA KYSELOVAParticipant
When his name is called, Tommy will respond with the eye contact, smile, looking at their direction or a vocalization (i.e, what or yes).
Tommy often ignores adults calling his name. Responding to his name is an important step in teaching social interaction with peers and adults. I believe that frequency is the best technique for data collection because this behavior can be repeated throughout the school day. It is observable and measurable by counting number of times Tommy responds to his name. In this case, as a teacher or service provider, I am not interested in measuring duration, latency or intensity of behavior. I am interested in improving student’s number of responses when his name is called.
When asked to name friends, Sam will provide the name(s) of students that are consistent play partners with 90% accuracy.
Sam is a preschool student who engages in solitary play and lacks social skills. Preschool setting is the best place to work on peer interaction. Learning peer names is a good starting point and important skill for developing positive relationships with others. I will use documenting the accuracy of the behavior as I want to collect data about the number of correct responses. This goal does not require measuring how long behavior last (duration), length of time to respond (latency), or the amount of efforts needed for behavior to occur (intensity). We are measuring numbers names correct of Sam’s partners.
When attempting and not succeeding at a challenging task, Tommy will initiate with an adult for help (verbally/nonverbally).
This goal addresses Tommy’s ability to self–regulate when he is frustrated with challenging or difficult tasks. I will choose latency for data collection and progress monitoring and will record the time between onset of stimulus (challenging task) and initiation of student response. I will not use accuracy as it does not help me document Tommy’s ability to deal with challenging task and frustration. I won’t use frequency as I am not interested in the number of times behavior occurs, I am interested on amount of time or time to task.
When given a turn taking activity, Kate will participate with a peer or adult (eg. rolling a ball back and forth, pushing a button on a toy, turning pages of a book, or other choices related to student for 3 or more minutes on 4 out of 5 opportunities over 5 days.
Kate is a preschool student who is not interested in other people. I would like to start working on improving her social skills by providing opportunities to participate with others and documenting how long this behavior last. Timing the duration of behavior is an appropriate data collection procedure in this case. The goal does not require documenting endurance or accuracy.
During snack time, Lily will independently drink from a small cup with little or no spilling in 4 out of 5 consecutive opportunities over 5 days.
Lilly demonstrates delays in the area of self-help skills. She uses a sippy cup for drinking. Her mother reports that she spills and makes a mess when using a regular cup. I will use endurance to document how many times she can repeat the behavior (drinking with little or no spilling from a cup) successfully. I will not able to gather this information by just counting number of times she drinks (frequency) or how long she drinks (duration).
Given a variety of classroom materials, Paul will demonstrate care for materials by handling them gently and safely with/without prompts on 4 of 5 opportunities over 5 days.
Paul rips book pages and cover off and plays with toys by throwing and breaking them. The goal, I suggested to work on, addresses teaching him to be gentle with materials. I will collect data on intensity of his behavior (amount of force he puts when interacting with materials). Information about frequency of behavior, duration of behavior, or latency is not important when working on this goal.
Upon adult request, James will independently put on outer garments (e.g., coat, snow pants, hat, gloves, boots) including fasteners 5 of 5 data days.
James currently assists with dressing and he is not to put on his clothes independently. This goal measures his ability to be independent in the area of dressing. For progress monitoring I need to collect data bout the amount of support he needs to dress himself. I cannot monitor his progress in being independent by using frequency, duration, intensity or endurance of behavior.
April 22, 2019 at 2:01 pm #10167Naomi BuckParticipant
I too appreciated that you included background information as it gave your rationales more context. If I had thought to do that, I think it would have made them a bit easier and given them more meaning. As it was, I struggled a bit with some of my explanations as to why I categorized them the way that I did. I also appreciated reading your goals/examples, as I would not have thought to classify some of them as you did. I might have put asking for help under independence rather than latency- but your explanation made a lot of sense. It’s interesting to hear and consider a completely different take on it.
June 4, 2018 at 5:31 pm #9773Dawn FagenstromParticipant
I enjoyed reading your goals. I felt they were all clearly defined and I am always looking for better ways to write goals with clearer meaning and better wording. I also felt your rationale for each goal was clear and reasonable. I appreciated that you added background information in your description. The background information added meaning to the goals and your rationale. I wish that I would have thought to do that, I found it challenging to express my rationales. : )
June 4, 2018 at 5:33 pm #9774OLENA KYSELOVAParticipant
I like your examples of behaviors for different techniques. Your explanation of behaviors and techniques was very clear and easy to understand. I also liked that you address different areas of skills (social skills, behavior, self-help, motor skills and academic skills).
November 11, 2018 at 5:22 pm #9914Melinda JonesParticipant
Frequency: John will participate in at least 1 engagement activity with a peer or adult during morning “connecting” songs.
John is in need of safe relationships with peers and adults at his preschool, in order to increase his development in self-regulation (interactions and regulation). Measuring the frequency of his participation in “connecting” opportunities will give his teachers data that would indicate progress toward this IEP worthy need.
Accuracy: John will name all of his peers/teachers when it is his job during morning greeting activities.
Another piece of data that would demonstrate progress toward relationship building for John, would be the measure of his knowledge of the names of the peers and teachers in his classroom.
Latency: John will join the group within a reasonable amount of time for transitional activities between indoor and outdoor activities.
John often avoids groups completely but needs to be with the group for safety reasons. By measuring latency, his teachers give him the time to move through the transitions at a reasonable pace while still allowing him some extra time and space.
Duration: John will participate cooperatively with a peer during a center choice for at least 3 minutes.
John expresses possessiveness and fear that others will take a toy he is playing with. As interaction and regulation skills develop, his teachers should be able to measure an increase in the duration of time that John can maintain cooperative play with a peer.
Endurance: John will engage in multiple communication exchanges with peers/adults during a variety of play activities.
John is able to demonstrate his understanding of the need for communication exchanges in relationships when we note the number of exchanges during his play activities.
Intensity: John will use an indoor voice volume when he needs to express his dislike or displeasure at having to finish a preferred activity and move on to a less preferred activity.
John will show us through this measure, that he is beginning to understand and functionally use voice volume in a way that increases the likelihood that others will listen to him.
Independence: John will move through the transition from music/movement to lunch without grabbing preferred toys/materials from shelves in other parts of the room.
This measure can show us that John is beginning to increase his regulation of impulses, and stop himself from choices that are undesirable.
January 12, 2019 at 2:42 pm #9996Andrea ColvinParticipant
I really like your goals for accuracy and duration. I feel that naming peers and teachers is a really essential life skill for students in friendship naming and safety. It is important for John to be able to say his teacher’s names accurately (and other adults in his life) and name his peers.
I also like your duration goal because it focuses on John’s participation with his peers. This helps him learn to be cooperative which leads to friendship making. It also helps him be included with his class. The longer he can participate in this, the more independent and more access to what his peers are learning.
November 11, 2018 at 5:32 pm #9915Melinda JonesParticipant
Olena – thank you for your descriptions of skills/behaviors. You describe the child in such a clear way. You link the behavior to the “what” that you are looking for, and your rationales for the criteria are valid and meaningful.
January 12, 2019 at 2:36 pm #9995Andrea ColvinParticipant
Frequency-Initiate to use bathroom throughout the day. I would use frequency data to measure this. Every time the student initiates that he has to go to the bathroom, I could easily mark the time and see how many time he goes without having an accident. I think frequency would best measure this skill because I don’t need to know how accurately he uses the bathroom or how long it takes him to go to the bathroom after he asks. I just want to know how often he independently initiates to use the bathroom.
Accuracy-Correctly match objects to a number. I would use accuracy for this goal because there is a correct answer. If there are 4 objects, the only correct answer is selecting the number 4. I want to know how many times my student can count objects and select the correct number. I don’t need to know how frequently she dos this or how long she can do this task.
Latency-Will begin task within 2 minutes. Latency is the best way to measure this skill. I use this goal for students that often sit and wait to be helped or prompted without trying a task. I want the student to work on beginning tasks on her own and more quickly than she currently is. This is the best way to measure because I don’t need to know the intensity in which she is delaying the task or her insurance. I just need to know how long it takes her to begin a task.
Duration-Will work on task for 5 minutes without break. I would use duration for this skill because i want to increase the amount of time my student will work on a task. I can measure how long the student works on each task given. I don’t need to know the frequency of tasks or accuracy, just how long he works on the task.
Endurance-Participate in 5 conversational turns. Endurance would support a conversational turn goal because my student is practicing repeating the same behavior for 5 conversational turns. I want to increase how many conversational turns the student is taking and therefore his endurance for conversations. I don’t need to know how long it takes or how accurate he is in his conversations.
Intensity-Will calmly ask for a break. Intensity would be measured for this goal by marking what type of behaviors happen when the student asks for a break. The student could currently be screaming, ripping papers, or tipping chairs to show that she needs a break. Calmly could be measured by the student showing that she needs a break by pointing to a break picture or saying “I need a break, please.” I don’t want to know how frequently she is taking a break or even how long, I am trying to teach her to calmly ask for a break, therefore intensity is the best way to measure this behavior.
Independence-Transition with 3 or fewer prompts. I want to measure how independent a student can be at transitioning by recording how many prompts from adults it takes for the student to transition. The fewer the prompts, the more independent my student will be. I am not looking for how long it takes her to transition or the accuracy of her transition, I just want a goal that shows that she is becoming more independent at transitions.
April 22, 2019 at 2:01 pm #10166Naomi BuckParticipant
As I thought of these examples, it became apparent that several of my examples have aspects of more than one dimension. Some are written as goals, but not all, as they are not all phrased in a way that would be easy to measure.
Student will demonstrate an increase in self-regulation by reducing the number of blurts to 2 or fewer per 60-minute class period.
In this case, I am not measuring any of the other dimensions (accuracy, latency, duration, endurance, or intensity.) The student is expected to do this independently and without prompting from an adult so I feel that frequency is the best way to measure an increase in the still.
Student demonstrates understanding of 1-to-1 correspondence by counting 10 consecutive objects in 4 of 5 attempts.
The important part of this goal is that the student understands enough to be able to demonstrate 1-to-1 correspondence accurately. I am not interested in how often they do it (frequency), how long it takes to complete the task (duration) or get started (latency), or whether the student needed prompts to get started (independence.) I only care about whether the student understands the concepts well enough to complete that task.
Student demonstrates an increase in social skills by responding to others’ greetings (eye contact & nod, hand wave, verbal greeting, response to teacher’s greeting, etc.) within an appropriate/socially acceptable amount of time.
This student frequently takes so long to acknowledge other people (if he does at all) that others often loose interest in the interaction or feel so awkward that they are less likely to engage this student in the future. None of the other dimensions really apply or could measure situation because the skill being measured is the student’s response time.
Student participates in the activity and remains on-task for 15-minute intervals within the general education classroom setting and with no redirections.
The intent of the goal is simply for the student to be able to maintain focus and self-regulate for long enough to be able to participate in classroom activities. Thus the length of time is important. Frequency, accuracy, latency, and intensity do not apply to this situation. Endurance seems closely related. However the length of time that the student participates is the important part, rather than demonstrating the repetition of skills. For example: the activity could be listening to a book as it is read. There is an aspect of independence in this goal because the student is expected to maintain focus independently- without redirections. However, the focus of the goal is for the student to maintain for a length of time so that they can take in information.
In order to complete her daily “job,” student will use her white cane to walk/navigate from one end of the building to the other without sitting at any resting spots along the way.
This student frequently becomes fatigued and, once sitting down, is extremely unmotivated to rise again to complete the task. The “job” often gets abandoned for the day. In this case, I do not care how well the cane is being used (accuracy) or how long it takes (duration), just that the student persists with the activity until it’s done. There is no latency to measure and, until the student can complete this with support, we are not focused on independence.
Student will demonstrate an increase in self-regulation by controlling the volume of his voice when transitioning between tasks and settings, requiring no more than 1 verbal prompt/reminder per day to “use your inside voice” for 5 consecutive days.
I have not written many goals for intensity. This one is appropriate because the skill being measured is control over the intensity of voice, though frequency (# times per day) and independence (# of verbal prompts required) are also necessary in order to make the goal measurable and to measure the reduction in intensity. The other dimensions (latency, accuracy, duration, and endurance) are not applicable to this goal as I am only focusing on the volume of the student’s voice because it is that aspect that makes it disruptive and socially unacceptable to others. With a different student, duration might be something to measure, but once conscious of the behavior, this student responds and lowers his voice immediately.
Goal: Student signs her name independently in 4 of 5 attempts.
Student signs her name with hand-over-hand assistance and use of her guiding tool in 4 of 5 attempts.
Student signs her name with use of her guiding tool in 4 of 5 attempts.
Student signs her name independently in 4 of 5 attempts.
**The guiding tool is a wood stencil with the student’s legal signature (2 connected letters) carved into it to guide the writing utensil.
Again, for this task, I do not care how long it takes the student to get started (latency) or to complete the task (duration.) I am not measuring how well the letters are formed (accuracy) or how often they perform the task (frequency.) And it is not a long activity, and so, does not require endurance. I just want to know that, when it comes time to sign her name on a document, the student can independently go through the motions and produce something semi-legible and legal.
May 5, 2019 at 8:13 pm #10194Mark DineltParticipant
Directions: STEP 1- For each of the dimensions of behavior described in Lessons 3.1 and 3.2 (frequency, accuracy, latency, duration, endurance, intensity, and independence), provide one example of a behavior/skill that would be best measured using that technique. Provide a rationale for why you feel this is a sufficient example and why the other techniques would not be as useful for that behavior/skill.
Frequency: Extinguish “Blurting Out” random phrases from movies, books or excited speech student has heard at “Circle Time”/.
Student has been improving in participating in “Circle Time”. However, he still shouts out at random times phrases that are not appropriate in that setting. It is definitely not a case of accuracy, endurance or independence. Latency could be considered but the Team wants the behavior to disappear completely for the 30 minutes of Circle, not simply continue to appear at certain intervals. The outbursts are very short so duration is not an issue. They are loud enough to be considered too intense but again, the Team wants it to disappear at this time not simply become quieter (although that would be an improvement).
Accuracy: Cross street safely with 100% accuracy.
It doesn’t really matter how many times the student crosses the road, if it happens once unsafely, it could be the last time. Latency could be an issue if you do not cross at a safe time because that time can pass so quickly. But the accuracy is more critical. It’s ok to miss a few potential safe times to cross. It’s not ok to cross unsafely. The duration is short and does not tax the student’s endurance so these are not important issues at this time. I’m not sure how I’d measure the intensity of crossing the street unless it was determining the effort applied in focusing on the task. May be important but not critical for this student. Independence will eventually be important but first we must be sure for ourselves that the student can cross safely under a great variety of circumstances that he is likely to encounter.
Latency: Come to staff when called.
Frequency is certainly an issue. You want the student to come every time you call. But it is not as important as coming in a timely manner. Accuracy is not the issue. You either do come or you don’t (although, I suppose a student could come close and stay, in which case I would handle the situation differently). Duration is not the issue, again, as you either do or don’t do it. Duration might relate to how long a student stays in the area you want him/her to be in but, again, that is a different issue. It does not take any endurance (for this student) or particular intensity to achieve this action. We do want it to be “independent” but he/she can already do the action independently: the question is “how long” will it take.
Duration: stay at “Circle Time” for 30 minutes.
The student is able to get to “Circle” independently and does so every day quickly so Frequency, Accuracy and Independence are already covered. It does not need to be done with any special intensity and it does not take great endurance to sit and participate in minimally active ways.
Endurance: run during PE time for 10 minutes.
The student likes to go to PE and participate in activities. He/she walks and runs adequately and joins in readily. Running, by definition, takes a certain amount of intensity but the real question is how long the student can run. So Frequency, Accuracy, Latency, Independence are not issues in this case. Because he participates happily in all PE activities, Duration is not the real issue. We want to help the student build up a tolerance to running for longer periods of time so he/she can fully participate with peers.
Intensity: say name loud enough for peers and staff and others to clearly hear him/her.
The student has no difficulty saying his/her name whenever required. It only takes a moment. He/she just says it so softly that others cannot hear him/her adequately. So frequency, accuracy, latency duration, endurance and independence are clearly not the issues in this case.
Independence: go to bathroom, as needed
We don’t really care how frequently the student needs to go (though we will do things that increase the need so that he/she gets more practice). Of course we do want the student to go “accurately” in the bathroom but that does not seem to be an issue. Latency could be considered an issue (wait too long and you obviously don’t make it) but it’s not something we can judge until after the fact. It doesn’t take much endurance (usually) and the duration has not been an issue. Hopefully, like endurance, intensity is not an issue. That might take us into other fields of specialty but it doesn’t seem to be an issue currently.
When I teach this skill to students who are significantly “behind” peers in developing independence of toileting skills, I do not ask them to signal me or ask. I simply teach them to go into the bathroom, as needed, to take care of their business. This saves a teaching step, which can come later, and helps ensure that they do make visits to the bathroom in a timely manner.
STEP 2– Respond to at least one colleague’s posting.
Frequency – greeting is a familiar topic of concern for many students I have worked with. Looking at frequency is certainly one of the ways I would approach this.
Accuarcy – can’t go wrong ensuring accuracy with numbers. Later on when you are talking about money it will be critical. And, of course, many job activities will involve counting out materials to be used and counting supplies for inventory. Definitely important to be accurate.
Latency – I have dealt with this exact skill, getting ready for recess in a timely manner. Great choice. Very practical in most of Alaska.
Duration – Very similar to my choice and exactly like skills I have worked on with many students.
Endurance – Many PE activities take a certain amount of endurance to participate with peers. Very similar to my choice.
Intensity – Appropriate volume for students in a variety of situations (inside/outside, to person next to you/across the room) is definitely an area of concern for many of my students. And, in this case, almost exactly like mine.
Independence – Same goal as mine. Definitely a priority for me whenever I encounter a student who is not yet “toilet trained” (and not just “trip-trained”), whether they are late preschool or post high school. I do save the “indicate need” till later, after going independently has been well established but otherwise I agree with her reasoning.
April 29, 2020 at 5:31 pm #10890LuEmma RowlandParticipant
Charlie will use two hands together to manipulate two small objects at the same time in order to put things together (e.g. string beads, build with legos, put cap on marker, zip zipper, etc.) in 4 out of 5 opportunities.
*This goal is measuring the number of times he is able to manipulate two small objects. Frequency is required because as a teacher I want to know how many times Charlie can continually do this. I am not worried about other areas such as accuracy, latency, or duration.
Charlie will name 8 basic shapes (rectangle, square, triangle, heart, oval, star, circle, diamond) with 80% accuracy for 4 out of 5 opportunities.
*This goal is measuring how many are intended to be correct. I want to be sure that Charlie can name all 8 basic shapes. This goal isn’t based off of duration, intensity, or independence. I am mainly looking for that 80% accuracy or higher to know this goal is met, which at this time is most appropriate.
When frustrated, overwhelmed, or upset, Charlie will ask for help by using gestures and/or words for 4 out of 5 opportunities.
*This goal is measuring the length of time to respond. Latency is most important because data will be kept from how long it takes him to calm down and transition his ability to be able to ask for help. It’s important to know the length of time because overall we want that time to lesson over time. Other areas such as accuracy, endurance, or duration isn’t a factor.
When expressing displeasure (crying, kicking, screaming, etc), Charlie will calm down by using positive strategies (using his words to express his emotions, ask for help, ask to take a break) within 5 or less minutes in 4 of 5 opportunities.
*This goal is measuring how long a behavior lasts, specifically how long it takes a child to calm down and use a positive strategy to regulate his behavior. I am specifically looking for time in this goal, not other areas such as how many times the behavior occurs (endurance) or amount of time it takes him to respond (latency).
Charlie will count 10 objects with 1:1 correspondence for 4 out of 5 opportunities.
*This goal is measuring how many times behaviors are repeated such as counting 10 objects. Charlie is working on his counting endurance, which is to accurately count 10 objects with 1:1 correspondence each time. Accuracy could be a factor in this goal but at this time I want to know how many times he can count 10 objects.
Charlie will ask for help using a voice loud enough to be heard with no more than 1 prompt for 4 out of 5 opportunities.
*This goal is the amount of force and/or effort with which the behavior occurs which is how loudly is Charlie speaking up in order for others to know that he needs help so both his peers and teachers know. Intensity is the best option because it’s measuring Charlie’s personal effort/force; other areas such as independence, endurance, or duration aren’t appropriate.
Given a visual schedule, Charlie will independently take off outdoor gear (snow jacket, hat, gloves, snow pants, and snow boots) for 4 out of 5 opportunities.
*This goal is the amount of support needed/ability to initiate. Charlie is most successful with using a visual schedule instead of receiving verbal prompting from a classroom adult. Independence is appropriate because this is a skill that Charlie needs to be able to do without assistance. I am not worried about accuracy or duration. If it takes him 10 minutes that’s okay!
August 9, 2021 at 8:07 pm #11281Rebecca JonesParticipant
I really loved your intensity objective:
Charlie will ask for help using a voice loud enough to be heard with no more than 1 prompt for 4 out of 5 opportunities.
That one seemed tough for me to figure out what intensity can mean, but I love to understand it in terms of voice volume. Thank you!
May 2, 2020 at 6:03 pm #10914LuEmma RowlandParticipant
Peer Response to Dawn:
Well done Dawn! All of your goals were well written and justified for the technique given. This assignment required me to think outside of my comfort zone or my own knowledge… I tend to write goals that would fall under one or more techniques. I had to be really careful how I worded a goal and to make sure that a different technique wouldn’t have been better. I was definitely hearing “shark music” myself! I definitely took away new knowledge and know how I can better my goals that I write for future students.
May 7, 2020 at 1:36 am #10931Diane GeorgeParticipant
STEP 1- For each of the dimensions of behavior described in Lessons 3.1 and 3.2 (frequency, accuracy, latency, duration, endurance, intensity, and independence), provide one example of a behavior/skill that would be best measured using that technique. Provide a rationale for why you feel this is a sufficient example and why the other techniques would not be as useful for that behavior/skill.
In some instances, I wrote a goal. In other instances I described the skill that would best be measured using a particular dimension:
Frequency: During a group discussion, the student will raise and lower his hand to provide information based on the verbal and gestural cues provided by the teacher as observed 4 out of 5 times during group activities. This student blurted out the answers and rarely raised his hand unless prompted by a paraprofessional. We wanted to increase his hand raising behavior (which he did). The other dimensions don’t fit here because we want to see an increase (frequency) in his hand raising and a decrease in blurting out.
Accuracy: measure the number of times a student uses the correct pronunciation of sounds in words and phrases during a speech session. When determining if a student is able to say a certain sound (i.e. /s/) you have to provide an opportunity for the student to use a number of words and phrases that contain the sound. It is not enough to consider the goal met if the student says the sound correctly in one word, but no others. This would also lend itself to endurance and independence. Typically with students who have articulation needs, we are looking to increase the accuracy of the letter sound production. I do think that independence is important since the goal is that the child is intelligible and does not need prompts or cues.
Latency: I could see measuring a student’s response time to a verbal direction or prompt. Such as: When given a direction by an adult, the student will follow the direction within one minute and with no more than 1 prompt. This is a student who frequently ignores teacher directions, especially when transitioning to a non-preferred activity.
Duration: The student will attend to his math seatwork for 10 minutes or until finished accurately and with no more than 1 reminder. For this student we want him to maintain his focus and complete an activity before moving on to another activity. I know I added accuracy because this student rushes through his work, often getting several items incorrect, just to say “done!”. I believe that accuracy has to be part of the goal.
Endurance: The student rarely lasts an entire gym period. He complains and cries that he is tired or he doesn’t want to try an activity. Sometimes he gets angry when his team is loosing and then he’ll walk away from the activity. An endurance goal could address his ability to participate in gym class for the entire class period with minimal encouragement from the staff. I don’t think that accuracy, frequency, latency, intensity or independence are measured here. I do think duration can be measured since we want him to participate in the entire gym period.
Intensity: With adult prompting, the student will select an appropriate sensory tool or skill prior to a whole group activity, so that he can sit and participate in the activity without aggression, eloping, or shouting as observed daily for 4 out of 5 days. This student has very intense, disruptive behaviors during circle time and other activities in which students are participating in a group (storytime, yoga, etc.). He has sensory tools available and is learning strategies for regulating his own behavior. I think a case can be made that duration is an important dimension here. We want this student to participate in the whole activity without exhibiting disruptive behaviors.
Independence: The student will write her first and last name with the correct formation of all letters 100% of the time. We are looking for complete independence. The student is able to write her first name and a portion of her last name. Accuracy is another dimension addressed here.
May 7, 2020 at 1:46 am #10932Diane GeorgeParticipant
Peer Response to Naomi:
I found your goals and explanations to be clear, understandable, and well-written. Your examples helped me as I was thinking of all the goals I have written over the years and how to categorize some of them. In some instances, I rewrote goals I had previously written with these dimensions in mind. Thanks for your insight.
June 15, 2020 at 3:57 pm #11007Jesse RiesenbergerParticipant
John will respond to classroom cues to transition activities without escalation in behavior or ignoring 8 out of 10 transitions.
This is a goal looking at how often John is able to transition with a typical classroom cue, so it is the frequency he is doing it. We are not talking about how quickly, or needing an accuarcy of the transition.
John will recognize his name and name all letters in his first name following a prompt with 100% accuracy.
The goal is for John to learn the letters of his name, this is looking at accuracy specifically and being able to do it correctly. While indpendence plays a piece in this the others are not a focus in this goal.
John will respond to his name being called within 5 seconds by looking at speaker or responding verbally.
The goal is to reduce the amount of time it takes for John to respond to speakers, I think accuracy and independence are important here also but the data that would be recorded would be related directly to how much time it takes him to respond.
John will attend circle time and engage in activities for up to 15 minutes without disrupting learning or escalating in behavior.
This goal is looking at how long John is able to maintain engagement in a structured activity, data collection would be looking at the time spent at circle time. It doesn’t specify how independently John needs to be or how often he will do this, so the focus is mainly duration.
John will increase his school day length from 1/2 day to 3/4 day and finally a full day of school.
This is looking at increasing John’s ability to attend a full day of school, not specific activities or
the intensity of the work just being able to make it through the day.
John will request help from an adult when feeling frustrated by an activity with a calm voice and without escalting in behaviors.
This is looking at how John will decrease intense behaviors when frustrated and respond appropriate. I think frequency could be a part of this but as written the team is focusing on John’s behavior and reducing the disruptions.
John will complete a multi-step activity following the classroom model without additional prompts or cues.
This is a goal expecting John to complete an activity independently, it does not require it to be accurate or measure how long it may take. The team would measure if John is able to follow the steps as was modeled.
June 15, 2020 at 4:01 pm #11008Jesse RiesenbergerParticipant
Peer Response to Dawn,
I really liked your examples and it helped me sort out how my typical class goals fall into them. Your Latency goal really stood out, this is a goal I write often in my pre-k IEP’s and I had viewed it more as a indepence goal, but I can see how it fits better with Latency.
July 4, 2020 at 1:35 am #11034Sandra Diaz CrossParticipant
Ella will be able to identify 20 uppercase and lowercase letters, on 4 out of 5 trials. In this goal, we are measuring how many letters Ella can identify. Ella struggles with learning the letters of the alphabet. Her progress in this skill can be measured weekly to determine mastery or if a different strategy will be used to teach her the letters. We are measuring “how many” letters she can identify so other techniques would not be useful for this skill.
Johnny will identify the main idea and at least 2 supporting details in a passage with 80% accuracy. Johnny is a fluent reader but struggles with comprehension. We want to monitor his understanding of the passage by collecting data on his accurate identification of the main idea and supporting details in passages. We are checking if Johnny conforms to the criteria of 80% correct, so other techniques would not be useful for this skill.
James will independently begin a task, including non-preferred tasks, within 2 minutes of direction, across different settings. James does not always follow instructions and refuses to perform tasks that he does not want to do. This goal measures how long it takes for James to respond to instructions and will be measured and recorded “time to task”. Other techniques would not be useful for this behavior.
Adam will independently sit and attend to preferred activities for up to 30 minutes without redirections for 3 consecutive days. Data will be collected by noting the number of times Adam performed the goal. This goal is a sufficient example of duration because we are measuring the length of time this behavior will last over a period of so many days.
Johnny will sit on the toilet for 1 minute every two hours, without resistance, as measured by observation, on 3 of 4 observed opportunities, with minimal cues and prompts. In this goal, we are measuring how many times the behavior of sitting on the toilet for 1 minute is repeated by Johnny.
During unstructured play time, Priscilla will interact with her peers by using a respectful and soft voice in 4 out of 5 opportunities. Priscilla tends to be bossy with her peers and talks in a very loud voice. She is working on modulating her voice level and be nicer to her peers. This is a good example of a goal using intensity.
Josiah will don all his winter gear with no assistance and reminders in 4 out of 5 opportunities. Putting on winter gear can be a complicated process for Josiah, especially since he has several layers to put on before he can go outside in this arctic weather. He gets easily frustrated and tries to get an adult to help him. Using pictures in a step by step process, he is learning to put on his gear on his own with the goal of doing it with no help or reminders. This is a great example of a goal on independence.
July 4, 2020 at 1:37 am #11035Sandra Diaz CrossParticipant
Response to Melinda Jones
Hi Melinda. I like that you focused your goals on the different dimensions of behavior on a particular student. This gives me the idea to look more carefully on these dimensions when writing IEPs for my own students. I think it will really help me write better IEP worthy goals in the future.
August 5, 2020 at 3:45 pm #11063Christine KleinhenzParticipant
For each of the dimensions of behavior described in Lessons 3.1 and 3.2 (frequency, accuracy, latency, duration, endurance, intensity, and independence), provide one example of a behavior/skill that would be best measured using that technique. Provide a rationale for why you feel this is a sufficient example and why the other techniques would not be as useful for that behavior/skill.
I’m thinking about social communication goals for a preschooler who is learning to stay within a play interaction, learning how to get another’s attention and to invite them into play, learning how to keep play turns going as well as keeping a calm and gentle voice to ask for objects from others. All these skills are necessary for learning from others within play and for being able to make and keep friends as well as helping a child stay focused on activity long enough for new social and communication opportunities to arise.
Susie will initiate a topic of interest with a peer ten times within a fifteen minute play session given opportunity with a responsive play partner.
I think that duration could work with this goal as well. However, counting on my hand a number of times something happens is usually easy for me to keep track of and easier for me than focusing on a clock. And I like using numbers for initiation because it is one specific skill in play where as staying in a play session is also another and separate skill.
Susie will remain within a play interaction for five minutes before leaving the play area given an activity of her choice with a responsive play partner.
I like using duration goals for play interactions because it can be broad enough where you work on many play skills at once as well as attention skills within one goal. You could work on initiating, turn taking, following another’s lead, interest etc. It allows for flexibility in what you work on as well as level of support. If more support is needed, you can add modeling, support engagement etc.
Susie will offer a peer a toy that has been requested within one minute of a toy being requested given verbal prompt “Let’s take turns” as appropriate within a play interaction given adult support.
I usually think of time with latency and was trying to think of what would be appropriate within a preschool play interaction for needing to wait and thought about the skill of sharing. Sharing is often a skill that needs guidance for learning as well as a great way to increase play interactions, awareness of others, asking for toys from others and learning how to negotiate in play etc. One minute may be long when play is happening but can also allow for a nice amount of time with a toy so the play doesn’t feel rushed. Plus, it works on patience and waiting etc all around. This could only work though if there were children willing to wait and available to take another turn after said one minute is up.
Susie will continue taking play turns within a play activity for five minutes before moving on to another activity given an activity of choice with a responsive play partner.
(This one I made slightly different from Duration using the same skill within the play activity rather than keeping it broad as just “play”.)
Endurance goals are great for working on a specific goal and wanting to see it continue. Play turns are great pared with endurance because you don’t have to worry about number of turns as long as the child is remaining engaged as well as pauses between turns etc and allows for more flow of natural play and natural ebb and flow of supports.
Susie will use “a gentle voice” to ask for a toy given the opportunity within a preferred play activity given a responsive play partner.
(Intensity is difficult as it can be hard to quantify – What is “Gentle” to one person may be different from one person’s ear to another and may need to be defined further)
The term intensity (force) reminds me of a toddler really wanting something badly and perhaps using more “force” physically or with their voice to get what they want as they are working out the more subtle aspects of friendship and play. Which lead me to the social communication idea of “gentle voice”. Tone of voice is such a subtle social variation that can be hard for some to master but can make a huge difference in others wanting to join in their play and can be a huge impact in a classroom happiness and feeling successful in a play interaction.
Susie will use her “gentle voice” in three different settings given the opportunity throughout day’s classroom experience to request an object from another.
(I used the idea of use in a variety of settings to measure independence here.)
I like using “In a variety of settings” to help determine if someone has mastered a skill realizing that if they can take what they learned in one situation and use it in a variety of ways, it usually means they understand why the skill is valuable and feel comfortable expanding it’s use.
August 5, 2020 at 4:12 pm #11064Christine KleinhenzParticipant
I love the use of following directions within a time limit -latency. I didn’t think of that but it works as it gives the kiddo time to process the information as well as finishing up what they were working on etc. And so many of our kiddos have a hard time with directions. This could be a great goal for further looking into perhaps why the kiddo may not be following directions and what other supports may be needed like proximity to child while giving direction, distractions etc.
August 9, 2021 at 8:02 pm #11280Rebecca JonesParticipant
Frequency- Michael will respond to his name being called by looking with his eyes or with a verbal or physical response (coming to the person) on 3 out of 4 opportunities. This measures how often he is responding to his name, and any of the other options do not offer this level of information.
Accuracy- Micheal will copy a circle within 1/2 an inch from the template on 4 out of 5 trials. This could also work for endurance, is Micheal is having a hard time trying, but with this situation we are trying to focus on his fine motor skills.
Latency- When asked a question, Sarah will respond within 1 minute with a verbal response or with sign language 80 % of the time. This is not necessarily focused on her responding or not, but focusing on how long it takes her to respond. Sometimes she will respond after a person leaves and she needs multiple prompts to engage with the person asking her a question.
Duration- Sam will stay at the table during small group for a total of 10 minutes while engaging in an activity of his choice for 4 out of 5 trials. Sam can often get distracted by others and other options around the room, so we are trying to get him to stay with an activity of interest for a longer period of time.
Endurance- Peter will stay on carpet during circle time, not necessarily in his spot or sitting; but will be present on the carpet without distracting behaviors for 10 minutes 80% of the time on 2 consecutive weeks. This is focused on him staying longer than he wants to stay and working on staying on carpet when he doesnt want to.
Intensity- When upset, Sarah will refrain from screaming and will use her choice board to choose an alternate response on 3 out of 4 times over two consecutive monthly probes. This objective is trying to get Sarah’s level of intensity to be lowered when she is upset and find ways that will soothe her and offer her better responses to situations.
Independence- Thomas will pour his own water into his cup with minimal spillage 80% of the time on 2 consecutive weekly observations. We are measuring his independence and how long it takes, or how strong he feels, etc. are not what is being measured by this objective.
September 19, 2021 at 3:22 pm #11309Jill WinfordParticipant
Data needs to be ongoing, used to revise instruction, and sufficient to make good decisions. As a resource teacher working with students in 4th – 6th grade on their academic skills, I most frequently measure accuracy, endurance, frequency, and independence. I seldom attempt to measure duration, intensity, or latency. Determining how long it takes a child to initiate a behavior once a cue has occurred is a form of measurement I can’t observe as one teacher with 30 students. Likewise, determining the amount of force and/or effort with which the behavior occurs is too subjective for what I can measure given the restraints of my day.
November 14, 2021 at 1:34 am #11329Erin Spooner MeyerParticipant
Reading your post definitely helped me understand more that certain skills can be best measured with different dimensions. I do think we can often get stuck in a rut with our preferred goals without even considering what would be the most beneficial wa to measure performance and growth.
September 19, 2021 at 3:12 pm #11308Jill WinfordParticipant
Accuracy — Bill produced the correct answer 8 out of 10 times. Accuracy is probably one of the easiest behaviors to measure. As long as an operational definition of success has been determined, then accuracy is simple to ascertain.
Duration — Bill had a tantrum for 42 minutes. Duration refers to an amount of time or a particular time interval. It refers to the amount of time that someone engaged in a behavior.
Endurance — Bill read quietly for 20 minutes. Endurance is the measure of a person’s stamina or persistence.
Frequency — Bill hit Susie 5 times. Frequency refers to the number of times that a target behavior was observed and counted.
Independence — Bill put on his snow gear by himself. Independence describes the ability to complete a task without assistance.
Intensity — Bill screamed at a Level 3 intensity. Intensity describes the amount of force and/or effort with which the behavior occurs. For example, to document the intensity of a student’s screaming, the operational definition might be: 1 is loud enough to be heard in the classroom only, 5 is loud enough to be heard in the next hallway.
Latency — It takes Jimmy 2 minutes after the demand to line up before he lines up with the rest of the class. Latency refers to the amount of time after a specific stimulus has been given before the target behavior occurs.
November 14, 2021 at 1:22 am #11328Erin Spooner MeyerParticipant
Frequency: Given a classroom or school setting, Kevin will raise his hand and quietly wait to be called on to participate in whole class or small group discussions with no talk-outs (blurting) recorded per 10 minute discussion period.
This goal measures the decreasing of blurting which would indicate the explicit teaching and pre-teaching of the frequency of the opposite behavior (staying quiet) is increasing.
Accuracy: Given a pattern on a hundreds chart, Scott will identify the next number in the pattern with 80% accuracy over 5 data trials.
There is one correct answer that I am measuring this skill, so I am targeting how accurate the student can be.
Latency: Given the resource classroom setting, Reese will begin work within 1 minute of being given the direction, 80% of the time data is collected.
I am wanting the student to initiate a task therefore it is an appropriate goal. A goal focused on accuracy would be difficult to measure because there is not one correct way to begin work.
Duration: Given the resource classroom setting, Mario will work steadily on an academic task for 5 minutes 80% of the time data is collected.
Duration is measured in time increments so this goal works better than how often he works steadily. I want to measure how long the student is able to stay on task.
Endurance: Charles will state his parents’ names, street address, and phone number every day for 10 consecutive school days.
Endurance is a good choice for this goal because this skill is a skill that definitely needs to be maintained over time.
Intensity: Wendy will decrease engagement in challenging behaviors from physical aggression, eloping, escaping, and self-harm to using her words when frustrated in ⅘ times observed.
Behavior is a good area to use intensity to measure performance because it is cut and dry which behaviors are more intense than others.
Independence: Mary will use the toilet to void, with only verbal reminders, 90% of the time data is taken.
Life skills is an area where independence is a great dimension of behavior to focus on.
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